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He counseled me to pay off the mortgage as quickly as I could so that, come what may, there would be a roof over the heads of my wife and children. I was reared on that kind of doctrine. I urge you as members of this Church to get free of debt where possible and to have a little laid aside against a rainy day. We cannot provide against every contingency. But we can provide against many contingencies.

Egypt mystery: How ‘ghost of pharaoh’ was found in underground tomb

Let the present situation remind us that this we should do. As we have been continuously counseled for more than 60 years, let us have some food set aside that would sustain us for a time in case of need. But let us not panic nor go to extremes. Let us be prudent in every respect. And, above all, my brothers and sisters, let us move forward with faith in the Living God and His Beloved Son.

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Great are the promises concerning this land of America. The Constitution under which we live, and which has not only blessed us but has become a model for other constitutions, is our God-inspired national safeguard ensuring freedom and liberty, justice and equality before the law. I do not know what the future holds. I do not wish to sound negative, but I wish to remind you of the warnings of scripture and the teachings of the prophets which we have had constantly before us.

I cannot dismiss from my mind the grim warnings of the Lord as set forth in the 24th chapter of Matthew. Now, I do not wish to be an alarmist. I do not wish to be a prophet of doom. I am optimistic.

Egyptian Battle Tactics

I do not believe the time is here when an all-consuming calamity will overtake us. I earnestly pray that it may not. We, and our children after us, must do it. I can assure you that we who are responsible for the management of the affairs of the Church will be prudent and careful as we have tried to be in the past. The tithes of the Church are sacred. They are appropriated in the manner set forth by the Lord Himself.

We have become a very large and complex organization. We carry on many extensive and costly programs. But I can assure you that we will not exceed our income. We will not place the Church in debt. We will tailor what we do to the resources that are available. How grateful I am for the law of tithing. It is set forth in a few words in the th section of the Doctrine and Covenants. It comes of His wisdom. To every man and woman, to every boy and girl, to every child in this Church who pays an honest tithing, be it large or small, I express gratitude for the faith that is in your hearts.

I remind you, and those who do not pay tithing but who should, that the Lord has promised marvelous blessings see Mal.

Archaeology: The Pharaoh & the Flood

I express appreciation to those who pay a fast offering. This costs the giver nothing other than going without two meals a month. It becomes the backbone of our welfare program, designed to assist those in distress. Now, all of us know that war, contention, hatred, suffering of the worst kind are not new.

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The conflict we see today is but another expression of the conflict that began with the War in Heaven. I quote from the book of Revelation:. That must have been a terrible conflict. The forces of evil were pitted against the forces of good. The great deceiver, the son of the morning, was defeated and banished, and took with him a third of the hosts of heaven. The book of Moses and the book of Abraham shed further light concerning this great contest. Satan would have taken from man his agency and taken unto himself all credit and honor and glory.

Opposed to this was the plan of the Father which the Son said He would fulfill, under which He came to earth and gave His life to atone for the sins of mankind. From the day of Cain to the present, the adversary has been the great mastermind of the terrible conflicts that have brought so much suffering. Treachery and terrorism began with him. And they will continue until the Son of God returns to rule and reign with peace and righteousness among the sons and daughters of God.

They do not merely remove the human from risk, changing our very concept of the role of a warrior, but in so doing reshape many of the foundational concepts of what war itself entails. Over the last decade, the use of unmanned systems in war has literally exploded, with a significant role in the greater Middle East here defined as the geographic space that extends from Morocco to the Indus River. A quick tour around the region illustrates:. By far the biggest and most notable operator of unmanned systems in the region is the American military. The US military inventory now includes over 7, unmanned drones in the air and another roughly 12, on the ground.

Illustrating the rapid growth of this field, at the start of the Iraq war in , these numbers were near zero. These systems range in size from tiny drones the size of hummingbirds, designed for Special Operations surveillance, to those with wingspans the length of a football field, which can stay in the air for days. The extent of US interest in continuing its growing use of unmanned systems is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that in , the US Air Force will train more pilots for unmanned aerial systems UAS than manned fighter or bomber plane pilots combined.

The Israeli use is not all that surprising, given that the IDF was one of the early pioneers in the field, first deploying drones against Syrian air defenses in the Lebanon war. Since then, this sector in Israeli industry has boomed. The most recent industry survey found that 10 different Israeli firms were working on over 40 different types of UAS, while the IDFs military labs have built innovative ground robots, such as a recent model for use in raids on buildings that can spray tear gas to incapacitate targets.

This wide range gives Israeli systems an influence well beyond their deployment by the IDF. For instance, the Elbit Hermes, a tactical medium altitude drone has also been used by NATO militaries in Afghanistan, while the IAI Harpy, an ingenious unmanned plane that can double as a cruise missile with a range of over km, actually has ended up in Chinese military hands. Much of the credit goes to detailed intelligence provided from US military Predator drones, tasked to assist the Turks as part of an agreement that bolstered the once-tense relations.

Moving forward, the Turkish military hopes to decrease this dependency. It has both requested the sale of the latest model Predator system, the MQ-9 Reaper, from the US, as well as worked to bolster its own domestic production. TAI is at work on 6 different types of systems, ranging from the TIHI, a Predator-like surveillance drone, to a smaller aerial system designed to be carried by an individual soldier in their rucksack. As a significant military power in the region, Iran has also entered into the unmanned systems field.

While public data is limited due to secrecy, the latest industry survey found 6 Iranian firms working on 10 different unmanned aerial systems. The most significant of these is thought to be the state-owned Qods Aeronautics Industries, which makes the Mohajer and Saeqeh drones. Because of their simplicity, skilled infantry continued to use this weapon at least with some regularity through the end of the New Kingdom.

It was used extensively for hunting fowl through much of Egypt's dynastic period. Most of the Egyptians were intent on using this weapon for it had a holy effect as well. The spear does not fit comfortably into either the close combat class or the projectile type of weapons. It could be either. During the Old and Middle Kingdom of Egypt's Dynastic period, it typically consisted of a pointed blade made of copper or flint that was attached to a long wooden shaft by a tang. Conventional spears were made for throwing or thrusting, but there was also a form of a spear halberd which was fitted with an axe blade and thus used for cutting and slashing.

The spear was used in Egypt since the earliest times for hunting larger animals, such as lions.

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In its form of javelin throwing spears it was replaced early on by the bow and arrow. Because of its greater weight, the spear was better at penetration than the arrow, but in a region where armour consisted mostly of shields, this was only a slight advantage. On the other hand, arrows were much easier to mass-produce. In battle, it never gained the importance among Egyptians which it was to have in classical Greece, where phalanxes of spear-carrying citizens fought each other. During the New Kingdom, it was often an auxiliary weapon of the charioteers, who were thus not left unarmed after spending all their arrows.

It was also most useful in their hands when they chased down fleeing enemies stabbing them in their backs. They gave way when His Majesty looked at one of them, and they fled. His majesty took all their goods himself, with his spear It remained short and javelin-like, just about the height of a man. The bow and arrow is one of ancient Egypt's most crucial weapons, used from Predynastic times through the Dynastic age and into the Christian and Islamic periods. The first bows were commonly "horn bows", made by joining a pair of antelope horns with a central piece of wood.

By the beginning of the Dynastic Period, bows were made of wood. They had a single curvature and were strung with animal sinews or strings made of plant fiber. In the pre-dynastic period, bows often had a double curvature, but during the Old Kingdom a single-arched bow, known as a self or simple bow, was adopted.

These were used to fire reed arrows fletched with three feathers and tipped with flint or hardwood, and later, bronze. The bow itself was usually between one and two meters in length and made up of a wooden rod, narrowing at either end. Some of the longer self bows were strengthened at certain points by binding the wooden rod with cord.

Drawing a single-arched bow was harder and one lost the advantage of draw-length double curvature provided. During the New Kingdom the composite bow came into use, having been introduced by the Asiatic Hyksos. Often these bows were not made in Egypt itself but imported from the Middle East, like other 'modern' weapons. The older, single-curved bow was not completely abandoned, however.

A difficult weapon to use successfully, it demanded strength, dexterity and years of practice. The experienced archer chose his weapon with care. The Egyptian craftsmen never limited themselves to one type of wood, it was very common for them to be using woods both foreign and domestic to their lands. The handmade arrows we created using mature branches or twigs and in some rare cases some immature pieces of wood that would have its bark scraped off. Each arrow was built with consisted of a reed main shaft, with a wooden fore shift attached to the distal end. The arrow head was either attached or was already in place without the help of an outside stabilizer.

The size of the arrows were. There are four types of arrow that are further categorized under two groups: stone heads, which consisted of the chisel-ended and leaf shaped, and the wooden heads under which the pointed and blunt or flaring arrows have been categorized. The composite bow achieved the greatest possible range with a bow as small and light as possible. The maximum draw length was that of the archer's arm. The bow, while unstrung, curved outward and was under an initial tension, dramatically increasing the draw weight. A simple wooden bow was no match for the composite bow in range or power.

The wood had to be supported, otherwise it would break. This was achieved by adding horn to the belly of the bow the part facing the archer which would be compressed during the draw. Sinew was added to the back of the bow, to withstand the tension. All these layers were glued together and covered with birch bark.

Composite bows needed more care than simple bows, and were much more difficult and expensive to produce. They were more vulnerable to moisture, requiring them to be covered. They had to be unstrung when not in use and re-strung for action, a feat which required not a little force and generally the help of a second person. As a result, they were not used as much as one might expect. The simple stave bow never disappeared from the battlefield, even in the New Kingdom. The simpler bows were used by the bulk of the archers, while the composite bows went first to the chariots, where their penetrative power was needed to pierce scale armor.

The first arrow-heads were flint, which was replaced by bronze in the 2nd millennium. Arrow-heads were mostly made for piercing, having a sharp point. However, the arrow heads could vary considerably, and some were even blunt probably used more for hunting small game. Hurling stones with a sling demanded little equipment or practice in order to be effective.

Secondary to the bow and arrow in battle, the sling was rarely depicted. The first drawings date to the 20th century BC. Made of perishable materials, few ancient slings have survived. It relied on the impact the missile made and like most impact weapons was relegated to play a subsidiary role. In the hands of lightly armed skirmishers it was used to distract the attention of the enemy.

Pharaoh missile surprise

One of its main advantages was the easy availability of ammunition in many locations. When lead became more widely available during the Late Period, sling bullets were cast. These were preferred to pebbles because of their greater weight which made them more effective.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Main article: Chariotry in ancient Egypt. Main article: Ancient Egyptian navy. See Egyptian chronology for details. Retrieved Qadesh BC. London: Osprey.